Where new technology is being launched, the old ones are also being revamped, or new features are being added to increase the productivity and efficiency of the developer. In this way, the difficulty of the developer increases further; whether they should go with a new one or stick to older ones?

Relatively, today, we will talk about two popular programming languages- Java and Python to find out what makes them different, which one is better, and so.

But before we start Python vs Java, let’s have a short introductory kind of session for both the languages like their history, features, who they are using, important stats, etc.

Essential Stats For Python Vs Java

  • As per Google Trends, the worldwide comparison between Python and Java, there is a very slight difference.

  • According to Statista, 44.1% of developers used Python, and 40.2% used Java worldwide as of 2020.

Image Source: Statista

  • As per Tiobe Index, Java is preferred more with 11.17%, and Python grabs the 3rd spot with 10.95% based on coding capabilities, performance, and popularity.

Python Overview

According to Wikipedia, Python first appeared in late February 1991, around 30 years ago. Guido van Rossum was the one who initiated the Python project as a  successor to the ABC programming language.

Now, it is an interpreted general-purpose, high-level programming language. The philosophy behind Python was to make code easier to read by using significant indentation.

What is Python best for?

In the fast-evolving digital world, we see Python is frequently used as a “scripting language” for different Web and Internet Development projects. Not only that, their uses are widely visible for:

  • Software applications
  • Business applications
  • Desktop GUIs
  • Games, etc.

Besides, it is used in mathematical computing, AI projects, scientific and numeric. Some big companies like Google, Instagram, Facebook, Spotify, Quora, Netflix are using it in their apps.

Python Features

Python has touched popularity over many other programming languages in recent times. It is enriched with many functionalities that make it a handy option for developers in 2021.

  • It’s a very beginner-friendly programming language.
  • Python is widely used for various tasks such as data analysis, AI, visualization, machine learning, and automation.
  • It is easy to write a Python script; besides, it automates tasks like saving files and folders. In that way, it also saves your time.
  • It is a multi-purpose language; with this, you can build web, mobile, and desktop applications or do software testing.
  • While using Python, you can solve complex problems in less time with fewer lines of code.
  • It’s a high-level language; therefore, complex tasks such as memory management are much easier and quicker to do.
  • It’s cross-platform, which means building and running Python applications on Windows, Android, Mac, and Linux.
  • Above all, it has a huge community from where you can take support whenever you get stuck.
  • Also, there is a wide range of libraries, frameworks, and tools in Python.
  • You need basic knowledge of OOP (object-oriented programming) to learn it.
  • With easy writing syntax and no more need to define variables, i.e., dynamically typed.
  • The best thing about this programming language, it is human-understandable, human-readable, open-source, and free.
  • Also, you will see the codes are compiled and executed side by side or line by line; it is an interpreted language. That means errors, if any, get visible as it encounters.

Also, read: Flutter vs. React Native: Which One Wins The Battle?

Java Overview

In late 1995, Oracle released Java as a class-based, high-level, object-oriented programming language. Initially, in 1991, it was developed by James Gosling, Patrick Naughton, and Mike Sheridan, but after a couple of years, it was acquired by Oracle. Moreover, James Gosling is known as the father of Java.

The purpose behind Java creation was to develop a programming language that is secure, simple, robust, architecture-neutral, interpreted, high performing, portable, object-oriented, and more.

What is Java Best For?

Currently, Java applications are broader, programmers and developers are using it to develop.

  • Mobile Applications
  • Scientific Applications
  • Gaming Applications
  • Desktop GUI Applications
  • Big Data technologies
  • Cloud-based Applications
  • Embedded Systems
  • Server Apps

Big Companies like Uber, Airbnb, and Pinterest are using Java.

Java Features

Java is much faster than many other traditional interpreted programming languages as its bytecode is close to native code. In contrast, it is a bit slower than a C++ compiled language.

  • It is also an object-oriented programming language that brings good coding experience; this makes it easy to write code.
  • Java programs get compiled even without the main function as its memory allocation takes place at run-time.
  • One of the amazing features of Java is that it is platform-independent.
  • Here, the code you try to run is not compiled directly; it will first convert it to bytecode and run on any JVM platform.

Now, let’s differentiate them based on some criteria to get the answers for Python vs. Java; which is better?

Still, Confused? Check Out More: Python vs. Java Differences!

Python Vs Java: Core Differences

  • Popularity

As per the Stack Overflow Survey, Python wins the match with a huge difference. 38.4% of professionals prefer using Python as a programming language, whereas only 8.8% of professionals usually go for Java.

Winner: Python

  • Performance

The common thing between both the programming languages is that they deal with bytecode and run in VM (virtual machines). This way, they separate code from a different OS, enabling the languages cross-platform.

But, Java is a compiler which means the program is converted before the program runs. On the other hand, Python is an interpreter, which means the program is converted while running for speed.

Further, JVMs usually perform just-in-time compilation for programs to native code or all, ultimately leading to better performance. Whereas Python is a bit different, it doesn’t perform such, but a few variants like PyPy perform.

Apparently,  in the Python vs. Java performance, Java is the winner because while looking at a simple binary tree test, Java runs ten times faster than in Python.

Winner: Java

  • Syntax

If you see the code for the “Hello world” program in Java and Python, there is some difference.

In Java, you have to start right from declaring a class to print a simple message “Hello, World.” The code of lines is around  4-5.

Whereas, for the same program, you just have to write one line code in Python. That means, Java is a verbose code, on the other hand,  is concise, no need of semicolon and curly braces.

Winner: Python

  • Speed

While talking about the speed, the source code in Java is first compiled into a binary byte while using a Java compiler. After that, those byte codes run on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), called a software-based interpreter. In that way, Java is known to be both an interpreter and compiler. This way, the runtime process in Java is faster and also leads to easy debugging.

Most of the developers find Python as an interpreted language that determines the variable type at run time. However, Java compiles much faster than Python.

Winner: Java

  • Code Readability

In terms of code readability, both programming languages emphasize making the code readable. But, in many cases, developers prefer Python because code is concise.

However, in Java, developers have put extra time in because they need to add more code lines to develop applications. Hence, it is a time-consuming process.

Winner: Python

  • Library

Today, there are around 137,000 Python libraries that can support developers to work more effectively. These standard libraries are designed to work tasks like testing, text processing, web programming, image processing that save time and effort. Java, too, is rich with libraries and frameworks; it supports developer’s specific needs.

Winner: Tie

  • Learning Curve

The learning curve for Python is much shorter than Java. Python’s simple line coding, and no use of a declaration of variables before use, make it more favorable for beginners.

Whereas, in Java, programmers have to write more code lines than Python to accomplish a task. Also, you have to declare variable type before use.

Winner: Python

Python vs Java Differences: Tabular Comparison

Parameter

Python

Java      

Compilation 

Python is an Interpreted Language

Java is both Compiled Language and Interpreted Language.

Static or Dynamic     

Python is dynamically typed

Java is statically typed

String operations

It offers lots of string-related functions.

Offers limited string-related functions.

Learning curve

Easy to learn and use

Complex learning curve

Speed

Python programs run faster than Java.

Java program runs slowly compared to Python.

Portability

Python programs require the use of an interpreter that should be installed on the target machine to translate. Moreover, the Python code is less portable.

Any mobile device or PC which can run the Java virtual machine can run a Java application.

Architecture

The interpreter translates source code into machine-independent bytecode.

Java Virtual Machine(JVM) lets you use a runtime environment to convert bytecode into machine language.

Backend Frameworks     

Django, Flask

Spring, Blade

Machine Learning Libraries

Tensorflow. Pytorch

Weka, Mallet, Deeplearning4j, MOA

Game Development Engines              

Cocos. Panda3d

JMonkeyEngine

Famous companies using this technology

Uber, Technologies, Dropbox, Google.

Airbnb, Netflix, Spotify, Instagram.

Must Read: PHP Vs. ASP.NET: Which to Choose in 2021?

It’s Wrap!

The conclusion is, we can not say anything like good/bad or better for the question like-  Python vs Java, which is better? Both programming languages hold their pros and cons. Both are rich with features and can help you develop enterprise or business solutions.

Further, choosing between Java vs Python depends upon your skills, requirements, availability of resources, etc. Besides, if you are searching for the answers to –  Java vs Python, which is better for the future? Who among them has better scope in the future? The answer is:

It’s better to learn both languages to grow and thrive on the cutting edge of a competitive market. You can take advantage of their positive aspects to develop high-end apps, software, websites, etc.

Indeed, it’s worth reaching highly skilled mentors and technical experts for the much-needed tech support if you are stuck with technical glitches.

FAQs

Which one is better, Java or Python?

The answer to this question ultimately depends on your needs, business requirements, skills, job requirement, client requirements. We can’t directly judge anyone better or best. Both Java and Python have some positive and negative things in them, such as:

Java requires you to declare the data type of variables before you use it, whereas  Python is more flexible it does not require so. Therefore, some programmers are OK with declaring variables earlier, thus choose Java. On the other hand, some have problems, and they choose Python. Similarly, many things that are OK for someone are not OK for others.

So, while choosing, cross-check the features and functionalities of the language, and see whether it matches your needs or not. This way, you can decide which is better, Java or Python.

Should I learn Python or Java in 2021?

If you are new to programming or development, learning the concepts of one programming language would help in learning more new programming languages. Although, the language you pick depends on what you’re trying to accomplish or job requirements or just want to learn a new language.

However, between Java and Python, the learning curve is easier for Python than for Java.

Is Python very different from Java?

Yes, Python is different from Java. Java is compiled and statically typed. Oppositely, Python is an interpreted and dynamically typed language.

Which pays more, Java or Python?

As per the Indeed report, the Python programmer’s salary is $108,598 per year in the US in 2021, whereas, for Java, the salary is – $102,691.

Can Java beat Python?

Both Java and Python have immense libraries to perform and network backing; besides, choosing a programming language generally depends upon the programmer’s use case. However, in terms of salary, Python beats Java.

Is Java or Python easier?

Java, usually not recommended for beginners, is a bit of a complex program. Moreover, Python is easier as you can go for the shortcuts like reusing an old variable. In addition, many users find Java harder to read and understand than Python.